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3.6. Cinema



Undoubtedly each country has its own history of the cinema and such an history is confirmed by documents. According to such documents the official history of the cinema, known then as the cinématograph, begins on December 22, 1895 in Paris at the Grand Café, near the Boulevard des Capucines, where two young Frenchmen, the brothers Louis and Auguste Lumière, stages a first showing.

According to several sources the cinema enters Turkey first through private showings, held at the Sultan's court (The Yildiz Palace), followed by public ones. We know, for example, that in 1897 a Rumenian citizen of Polish origins, Sigmund Weinberg, staged a first public show in Istanbul. The place being Sponeck's beerhouse in Galatasaray's square.

Institutions that Provide Training in the Cinema Sector

  • Mimar Sinan University Cinema Section Istanbul
  • Marmara University Cinema Section Istanbul
  • Marmara University Press Section Istanbul
  • Anadolu University Cinema/V Section Eskisehir
  • 9 Eylul University Cinema Section Izmir
  • Ankara University Political Sciences Press-Cinema Section Ankara

Organizations Connected to the Cinema Sector

  • SESAM -- Professional Union of Film Producers, Importers, Cinema-owners
  • FIYAP -- Association of Film Producers
  • SODER -- Cinema Actors' Association
  • FILM YON -- Film Directors' Union
  • SINEKAM-DER -- Association of Cameramen, Set Workers, Technical Assistants and studio workers
  • Istanbul Chamber of Commerce, Film Makers' Professional Committee of Film Producers, Importers, Cinema Owners and Video Distributors.


 1910-1930 Period

1914-Starting from 1908 more movie theaters are opened in various cities, most of them owned by foreigners or minorities. Practically the history of the Turkish cinema starts on November 14, 1914 when Fuat Uzkinay, being at that time an army officer, shoots a 150 meter long documentary (Ayos Stefanos'taki Rus Abidesinin Yikilisi / The Demolition of the Russian Monument in St. Stephan) considered to be the first Turkish film.

One year later (1915), by orders coming from Enver Pasha, Minister of War, an "Army film Center" is founded and Sigmund Weinberg, a pioneer in the film field, appointed as head of the said Center with Uzkinay as his assistant. Weinberg, who was usually shooting war documentaries and newsreels concerned with the visits of foreign monarchs, succeeds in convincing Enver Pasha to start producing feature films.

Weinberg's first attempt is an adaptation of a popular stage play, Leblebici Horhor, but after a while and due to the death of one of the leading actors, the shooting has to be stoped. A second film, Himmet Aganin Izdivaci (The Marriage of Master Himmet), encounters a similar end when most of the actors are recruited in order to serve during the war of the Dardanelles. It is only after the end of World War I that Fuat Uzkinay, substituting Weinberg at the head of the "Army Film Center", will complete Himmet Aga'nin Izdivaci (1918).

1917- In those first years of the Turkish cinema a further military office, "Müdafaa-i Milliye Cemiyeti" (The Association for National Defence), gets involved into film production, Fuat Uzkinay, now a foremost documentary director, is put at the head of the said department and young journalist, the 20 years old Sedat Simavi, succeeds in directing two feature films, Pençe (The Claw) and Casus (The Spy). Both being the truly completed first feature films of the Turkish cinema.

1919- Only two feature films are produced during the year: Mürebbiye (The Governess) and Binnaz. Both are directed by the 62 years old Ahmet Fehim, a leading figure in the foundation of the Turkish theater, and the male cast is composed by such stage actors as Rasit Riza Samako, Behzat Butak and Hüseyin Kemal Gürmen while the female leads are played by Mme. Kalitea, Eliza Binemeciyan and Bayzar Fasulyeciyan.

1921- Sadi Fikret Karagözoglu, a top comedian of the period, brings to the Turkish screen, with Bican Efendi Vekilharç (Mister Bican, Secretary) the first comic character. Karagözoglu directs two more adventures of his hero, Rican Efendi Mektep Hocasi (Mister Bican, School- master) and Bican Efendi'nin Rüyasi (Mister Bican's Dream), playing also the leading part.

1922- A new era begins in the Turkish cinema with Muhsin Ertugrul, who had worked as an actor and director in the German cinema from 1916, returning in Turkey and with the foundation, by brothers Kemal and Sakir Seden, of "Kemal Film", Turkey's first private producing company. Muhsin Ertugrul, relying on his filmic experiences abroad, directs two features for "Kemal Film": Istanbul'da Bir Facia-i Ask (A Love Tragedy in Istanbul) and Bogaziçi Esrari / Nur Baba (The Mystery of the Bosphorus / Father Light).

The second one causes some incidents: adapted from a novel by Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoglu it attracts the attention of the religious sect known as the "Bektasi". Thinking that the production is aimed against their teachings the Bektasi's raid the studio, while shooting is in progress. The police has to protect the crew, the leading actor flies in panic and refuses to resume his work and so on. But, in the end, the film is finally completed.

1923- Muhsin Ertugrul is ready to start his career, as the ruler and No. I man of the Turkish cinema, directing three productions during the year. The first of them is Atesten Gömlek (The shirt of fire), adapted from the novel by Halide Edip Adivar. Set during the years of the Turkish War of Independence it remains the "first" of an epic tradition and, furthermore, also the first film where -following the proclamation of the Turkish Republic (1923) and its allowing Turkish women the freedom to work- two Turkish actresses, Bedia Muvahhit and Neyyire Neyir, appears in front of the camera.

During the year Muhsin Ertugrul directs also Leblebici Horhor and Kiz Kulesinde Bir Facia (A Tragedy at Kiz Kule).

1924- Muhsin Ertugrul directs only one movie and after completing Sözde Kizlar (The Would be Girls), adapted from a novel by Peyami Safa, goes to Russia (1925) to continue his cinematographical works.

1928- The brothers, Ipekçi who, in 1924, had started a ring of movie theaters enters feature production with a new company, "Ipek Film", thus founding the second private film producing venture of the Turkish cinema. Muhsin Ertugrul, back to Turkey, starts directing the first feature of "Ipek Film", Ankara Postasi (The Courier from Ankara), to be completed the following year.

Another feature, also signed by Muhsin Ertugrul, and titled Kaçakçilar (The Smugglers) has to be interrupted when one of the leading actors dies in a car crash. Kaçakçilar is thus completed in 1929.

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 1931-1950 Period

1931- Muhsin Ertugrul's Istanbul Sokaklarinda (The Streets of Istanbul) shares the titles of both "first Turkish co-production" (with Greece and Egypt) and "first talkie". Combining a cast of Turkish (Semiha Berksoy, Talat Artemel, I. Galip Arcan), Egyptian (Azize Emir) and Greek (Gavrilides) players the film is dubbed in Paris, at the Epinay studios.

1932- Shoot with a cast of theatrical actors, including Atif Kaptan, Ferdi Tayfur, Mahmut Morali, Hadi Gün, Hazim Körmükçü, Sait Köknar, Ercüment Behzat Lav, Bir Millet Uyaniyor (A Nation Awakens), another War of Independence epic, becomes Muhsin Ertugrul's best work and one of the first "good", films in the history of the Turkish cinema. Furthermore and again for the first time an actor (Atif Kaptan) becomes a popular figure through his part (Captain Yahya) in the film.

While Ertugrul goes on completing Kaçakçilar (The Smugglers), Ipek Film opens its first sound stage and censorship enters the Turkish cinema with the first version of the "Instructions concerning the control of cinema films " .

1933- 4 feature films and 3 short ones are produced. 1933 is the year devoted mostly to operettas and vaudevilles. Muhsin Ertugrul directs Karim Beni Aldatirsa (If my wife betrays me), Söz Bir Allah Bir (One is the word and one is the Lord) and Fena Yol (The Bad Way), the last being a further co-production with Greece. In the meantime, together with Nâzim Hikmet Ran who had authored several screenplays under the penname of Mümtaz Osman, Ertugrul signs also Cici Berber (The Nice Barber). Nâzim Hikmet directs a short feature, Dügün Gecesi / Kanli Nigâr (The Weding Night / Bloody Nigâr) and actor Hazim Körmükçü signs another short Yeni Karagöz (The New Karagöz).

1934- A new producing company, "Ha-Ka (Halil Kamil) Films" is founded. Muhsin Ertugrul directs Milyon Avcilari (The Million Hunters) and Leblebici Horhor Aga while Nâzim Hikmet gives another short work with Istanbul Senfoni (The Symphony of Istanbul). The remake of Leblebici Horhor Aga represents Turkey at the Second Venice Biennale and is awarded with a "diploma of honor" thus becoming the first Turkish feature awarded in an international film festival.

1935- With Batakli Damin Kizi Aysel (Aysel, the Girl from the Swampy Roof) Ertugrul gives to the Turkish cinema its first rural drama. The film, who carries openly influences derived from the Soviet cinema, is also noticeable for the presence of Cahide Sonku, a theater actress who had entered the movies in 1933. With her interpretation of Aysel, Cahide Sonku becomes the first star of the Turkish screen.

1939- From 1916 to 1939 the Turkish cinema remains under the strong domination of theatrical personalities, including Muhsin Ertugrul. In 1939 a new director enters the field, Faruk Kenç, who directs Tas Parçasi (The Stone). Kenç returns to Turkey in 1938, after completing in Germany a film and photography school. And Kenç has also to use, in his cast, leading theatrical actors following the steps of Ertugrul since the cinema is still dominated by the theater.

1940- With Faruk Kenç entering the field the number of films produced during the year reaches 5. Suavi Tedü, a young stage actor playing leading parts in Ertugrul's Sehvet Kurbani (Victim of Lust) and Kenç's first action thriller Yilmaz Ali (The Indomitable Ali), starts a line of handsome and typical "jeune premier".

1942-While 1941 ends with only one feature film produced, Muhsin Ertugrul's "Kahveci Güzeli" (The Handsome Coffee-seller) brings out four releases, one (Kiskanç / The Jealous one) directed by Ertugrul and the remaining three by Adolf Körner, a former Czechoslovakien entertainer. For "Ha-Ka Film" Körner directs three features in a row: Duvaksiz Gelin (The Unveiled Bride), Sürtük (The Trollop) and Kerem ile Asli (Kerem and Asli). Among them Sürtük, an adaptation of G. B. Shaw's Pygmalion, will influence the melodramatic tradition of the Turkish screen through several remakes.

1943- Nasrettin Hoca Dügünde (Nasrettin Hodja at The Wedding), started in 1940 by Ertugrul from a screenplay by Burhan Felek, is finished by actor and dubbing specialist Ferdi Tayfur. A new producing company, "Ses Film", owned by Necip Erses enters into production with Dertli Pinar (The Sorrowful Spring) a further rural melodrama directed by Faruk Kenç.

1944- Following Faruk Kenç another non-theatrical director, formed in Europe, comes back to Turkey in 1939; Baha Gelenbevi. Gelenbevi, who had worked in Paris with Abel Gance (Napoleon) and Marcel L'Herbier (L'argent), starts as Director of Photography in Kenç's Dertli Pinar then goes on to direct his first feature, Deniz Kizi (The Mermaid).

1945- Kenç, who has formed his own company "Istanbul Film" in 1944, produces and directs Hasret (Nostalgia), a drama staring singer Münir Nurettin and newcomer Oya Sensev. With Kenç non-theatrical newcomers had the possibility of acting in feature films.

During the year three new directors direct their first film: Sadan Kamil, who had graduated in photography in Germany, signs Onüç Kahraman (13 Heroes), Talat Artemel and Refik Arduman, both from the City Theater (Istanbul), give respectively Hürriyet Apartmani (Freedom Apartment) and Köroglu.

And three new producing companies are started: Fuat Rutkay's "Halk Film", Nazif Duru and Murat Köseoglu's "Atlas Film" and Turgut Demirag's "And Film" Rutkay being a movie theater owner, Duru operating its own theater and Demirag having graduated from the Southern California University and worked with Leo McCarey.

Another non-theatrical actor, Sadri Alisik joins the cast of Faruk Kenç's Günahsizlar (Those Without sin) while further producing companies, such as Hürrem Erman's "Erman Film" and Naci Duru's "Duru Film", enters into the market.

The year's most important event is the creation of the "Association of Film Producers" an independent association bringing together all producers of Turkish films. The Board is composed, thus, by Faruk Kenç, (Istanbul Film), Ihsan Ipekçi (Ipek Film), Turgut Demirag (And Film), Fuat Rutkay (Halk Film), Necip Erses (Ses Film), Murat Köseoglu (Atlas Film), Refik Kemal Arduman (Ankara Film), Iskender Necef (Birlik Film), Hikmet Aydin (Sark Film) and Yorgo Saris (Elektra Film).

1947- 12 feature films are produced during the year. Vedat Örfi Bengü, a pioneer of the Egyptian cinema, directs Bagda Gül (A Rose in the Wineyard); Seyfi Havaeri, a former stage actor in Burhanettin Tepsi's and Sadi Tek's theatrical companies, signs two films, Yara (The Wound) and Kilibiklar (Woman-haters); Ferdi Tayfur, a member of the City Theater, gives Senede Bir Gün (Once A Year) and Kerim'in Çilesi (The Ordeal of Kerim). Following the steps of their "master" Muhsin Ertugrul the said directors' works are stamped with a heavy, outdated theatrical pathos. Another negative influence is also derived from the Egyptian features abondantly imported in Turkey during the years of World War 2.

Among the new directors of the year the only one to gain some attention is Turgut Demirag who, devoid of any theatrical background, had been formed in Hollywood. Adapted from a novel by Resat Nuri Güntekin, Demirag's Bir Dag Masali (Tale of A Mountain) constitutes the first attempt at a super-production.

1948- 18 features are produced. 5 of them are directed by Vedat Örfi Bengü, 7 are produced by Fuat Rutkay (Halk Film) who, in the following years, will remain the most active producer of the Turkish cinema.

Meanwhile: three new companies are founded, Ömer Aykut's "Ömay Film", Agop Findikyan's "Isik Film" and Sabahattin Tulgar's "Milli Film". Sami Ayanoglu and Kadri Ögelman, both coming from the ranks of Muhsin Ertugrul, directs their first films, Harmankaya and Kahraman Mehmet (The Heroic Mehmet). And two non-theatrical directors enters the cinema: Sakir Sirmali with Domaniç Yolcusu (The Domaniç Traveler) and Çetin Karamanbey with Silik Çehreler (Pale Faces).

The rise in the number of feature films produced yearly as well as the flow of new producing companies is primarily caused by the fact that, as per the Law on Municipal Incoms, local productions are taxed, on ticket prices, only for 25 % so that, for the first time in its history, the Turkish cinema gains a protection aimed at its gross revenue.

During the year the "Association of Film Producers" (Yerli Film Yapanlar Cemiyeti) organises the first offical Turkish films festival aiming at "Promoting several contests in order to help the development of the national cinema and assist its members". The awards of this first 'local films contest' are given as follows:

- Best picture: Unutulan Sir (Forgoten Secret), directed by Sakir Sirmali.
- Second best picture: Bir Dag Masali (Tale of a Mountain), directed by Turgut Demirag.
- Best Director: Turgut Demirag for Bir Dag Masali (Tale of a Mountain).
- Best Photography: Kriton Ilyadis.
- Best Sound: Yorgo Ilyadis.
- Best actress: Nevin Aypar.
- Best actor: Kadri Erdogan.
- Best character actress: Cahide Sonku.
- Best character actor: Talat Artemel.
- Best screenplay: Turgut Demirag, for Bir Dag Masali (Tale of a Mountain).
- Best story: Resat Nuri Güntekin, for Bir Dag Masali (Tale of a Mountain)
- Best processing : Ses Film (Necip Erses) studio.
- Best editing: Özen Sermet.
- Best original song: Unutulan Sir (Forgoten Secret)
- Best art direction: Kadri Erdogan, for Yuvami Yikamazsin (You Can't Destroy my Home)

No awards had been given for make-up and original music.

1949- Production reaches 19 feature films. The Turkish cinema is at the begining of a new era and during this era new, independent and original cinematographers will take their places, step by step, in accordance with the changing economical and social conditions. The first of them is Lütfi Ömer Akad, a landmark in the history of the Turkish cinema, who by directing his first feature, Vurun Kahpeye (Strike the Whore), gives a realistical War of Independence film and shows the first signs of a new and different filmic flair.

A new and much more dynamic style is also evident in the acting of the new performers. Sezer Sezin (Vurun Kahpeye/ Strike the Whore), Muzaffer Tema (Çiglik/The Scream), Gülistan Güzey, Hümasah Hican, Orhon Murat Ariburnu, Reha Yurdakul are only some of the names composing such a new generation of actors. Among them Sezer Sezin and Muzaffer Tema will reach stardom and a larger audience in the following years with Tema bringing to the "jeune premiere" type, started by Suavi Tedü, a more wide and popular approach.

1950- 22 films are produced during the year, the majority of them being the work of the "old generation" and its representative Vedat Örfi Bengü who directs 7 of them.Like other theatrical directors Bengü is living his last epoch. Still the sort of "primitive" cinema instaured and followed by Muhsin Ertugrul and his pupils between 1922 and 1947 will go on for a while. Ertugrul's "inheritance" is carried by names such as Kadri Ögelman, Cahit Irgat, Avni Dilligil, Mümtaz Ener and, it the following years, by Sami Ayanoglu (1951), Kani Kipçak (1951), Talat Artemel (1952) and Suavi Tedü (1953).

Together with Faruk Kenç, Çetin Karamanbey and others from the 40's, newcomers like Orhan Murat Ariburnu, Semih Evin, Mehmet Muhtar, Hüseyin Peyda will somewhat try to stand against the theatrical tradition assisted by actresses like Neriman Köksal and Mesiha Yelda.

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 1951-1960 Period

1951- 36 features are produced. With the start of the "period films" era movies dealing with the War of Independence or the Corean War raise in number. Some 13 historical films are shoot, 8 of them dealing with the War of Independence.

Further producing companies enters the field: "Lale Film" (Cemil Filmer), "Adali Film"(Handan Adali), "Yakut Film" (Dr. Arsavir Alyanak) and Cahide Sonku's "Sonku Film".

Nuri Akinci, Dr. Alyanak and Ihsan Tomaç are the new directors of the year while Orhon M. Ariburnu's "Sürgün" (The Exile) raises as one of the best production of 1951 and actor Turhan Seyfioglu attracts attention as a promising new star.

1952- The Turkish cinema tries to break its own record going up to 61 features. However 1952 was an important year.

Lütfi Akad directs 4 films. Among them Kanun Namina (In The Name of The Law), adapted from a real story, becomes a milestone in the history of the Turkish screen. Really, Akad brought a new breath and caused to gain a new language to a cinema who tried to express itself for ages. Living characters, actual events and the usage of natural environment put Kanun Namina (In The Name of The Law) its place inside the historical process.

Another important cinematographer, Metin Erksan, follows Akad's mastery. Although harassed by the censors Erksan is able to give, with his first directorial job, a realistical rural drama telling the life story of Anatolian bard Asik Veysel. Thus with Karanlik Dünya / Asik Veysel'in Hayati (Dark World / The Story of Asik Veysel) Metin Erksan easily proves that he has tinge to say and intends to say them.

Following a transition period the Turkish screen enters into a new phasis. Still the traditional Muhsin Ertugrul style is around and among others influences a director such as Muharrem Gürses (Zeynep'in Gözyaslari / Zeynep's Tears), who in the following years became one of the leading names of the populist cinema and, at least for his capability of reaching a large number of spectators, a director of some notice. Moreover his naive approach lead to a sort of "Gürses school" who was to influence other popular moviemakers.

During the year two actors from Ertugrul's squad, Vahi Öz and Hayri Esen, directed their first films followed by Orhan Atadeniz, an editor working at the Ipek Film's studios, and Nedim Otyam.

With the year's most important film, Akad's Kanun Namina (In the name of the law), the Turkish screen gains its first big star: Ayhan Isik. Isik came to the movies through a contest promoted by a film magazine (Yildiz/Star) and, as a winner, got his first part in Yavuz Sultan Selim and Yeniçeri Hasan (The Sultan Yavuz Selim and Hasan the Janissary, 1951). Another winner of the same contest, Belgin Doruk, soon became also a top female star.

The same year saw the foundation, by Lütfi Ö. Akad, Aydin Arakon, Orhon M. Ariburnu, the publisher Hüsamettin Bozok and the writers Burhan Arpad and Hifzi Topuz of the "Türk Film Dostlari Dernegi" (Association of the friends of the Turkish Film). The aim of the Association was such expressed: "Provide so that the Turkish cinema may achieve artistic progress and take a special place in the international film world".

1953- The year closes with a total of 44 films. Atif Yilmaz, who had started his career as a director the year before, went on adapting popular novels in heavily melodramatic works such as Hiçkirik (Sob) Ask Istiraptir (Love is Suffering). Atif Yilmaz Batibeki started as assistant director to Semih Evin before signing his first feature.

After 6 years absence from the screen Muhsin Ertugrul makes a come-back with Halici Kiz (The Weaver) who, apart from being one of the first color productions of the Turkish cinema, ends in a total flop hastening Ertugrul's retreat from the movies. Practically the first Turkish color film had been Salgin (The Plague), produced and directed by Ali Ipar staring Ipar's wife and Hollywood star Virginia Bruce, released after Ertugrul's Halici Kiz.

Akad, during the year, follows his success with Katil (The Killer); Orhon M. Ariburnu with Kanli Para (Bloody money) and Nedim Otyam with Toprak (The Land) give two interesting features while Kemal Kan and Sinasi Özonuk signed their first films. Özonuk gave also a first chance to young actor Esref Kolçak in Affet Beni Allahim (Forgive me, my God) and Istanbul Canavari (The Monster of Istanbul) stared another new player, Nazim Inan.

Meanwhile the first "Turkish Film Festival" organised by the "Türk Film Dostlari Dernegi" (Association of the friends of the Turkish Film) awarded the followings:

- Best film: Kanun Namina (In the Name of the Law), directed by Lütfi Ö. Akad.
- Mentions: Kanli Para (Bloody Mooney), directed by Orhan M.Ariburnu, Iki Süngü Arasinda (Between Two Bayonets), directed by Sadan Kamil, Drakula Istanbul'da (Dracula in Istanbul), directed by Mehmet Muhtar, Efelerin Efesi (The Master of all Masters) directed by Sakir Sirmali.
- Best directors:Lütfi Akad, Orhon M. Ariburnu, Sadan Kamil, Mehmet Muhtar, Sakir Sirmali.
- Best photography: Enver Burçkin, Kriton Ilyadis, Özen Sermet, Ilhan Arakon, Sadan Kamil.
- Best screenplays: Osman Seden, Adnan Fuat Aral, Orhon M. Ariburnu, Ümit Deniz.
- Best musical score: Orhan Barlas, Nedim Otyam.
- Best actors: Turhan Seyfioglu, Ayhan Isik, Atif Kaptan, Orhon M. Ariburnu.
- Best actresses: Lale Oraloglu, Nedret Güvenç, Ayfer Feray.

1954- 48 feature films are produced. Musicals featuring well-known singers ,first launched in the late 40's with Münir Nurettin Selçuk as a leading star, are back again this time with star singer Zeki Müren. During the year Akad signs another city drama, Öldüren Sehir (Killer City) and Sadan Kamil gives Kaçak (The Fugitive).

The second film festival organised by the "Association of the friends of the Turkish Film" ends as follows without any "best film" awarded.

- Best directors: Lütfi Akad (Öldüren Sehir/ Killer City), Ali Ipar (Bir Sehrin Hikayesi/ The Story of A City).
- Best screenplay: Ali Ipak (Bir Sehrin Hikayesi/ The Story of A City).
- Best photography:Yuvakim Filmeridis (Mahallenin Namusu/The Honor of the Neighbourhood), Ilhan Arakon (Salgin/ The Plague), Mike Rafaelyan (Ölüm Saati/ Hour of Death), Kriton Ilyadis (Öldüren Sehir/ Killer City).
- Best actor and actresses: Lale Oraloglu (Leylaklar Altinda/ Under The Lilacs), Aliye Rona (Mahallenin Namusu/ The Honor of The Neighbourhood), Belgin Doruk (Öldüren Sehir/ Killer City), Cahit Irgat (Alti Ölü Var/ Six Deads), Orhan Elçin (Ölüm Saati/ Hour of Death) .
- Best musical score: Nedim Otyam (Ölüm Saati/ Hour of Death).

1955- The number of films produced reaches 61. Osman F. Seden, head of "Kemal Film" Turkey's first producing company, follows his career as screen-writer with a first directorial item: Kanlariyla Ödediler (They payed it with their blood). Memduh Ün, Abdurrahman Palay and Mümtaz Alpaslan enters into the film world and the screen gains several new and different players such as Muhterem Nur, Lale Oraloglu, Bülent Oran, Mualla Kaynak and Nese Yulaç.

Lütfi Akad, adapting a story by Yasar Kemal, signs a further personal film with Beyaz Mendil (The White Handkerchief).Newcomer Fikret Hakan, playing the leading part in this realistically handed rural love drama, attracts praise and attention with his direct acting style bringing to the screen the personality of a "real actor".

Beyaz Sehir (White City), directed by Sami Ayanoglu, is dubbed into French and enters the Red Cross Congress, in Switzerland, wining a special award.

The Third Turkish Film Contest, organised by the "Association of The Friends of The Turkish Film", awards the followings:

- Best film: Kaçak (The Fugitive), directed by Sadan Kamil, Sevdigim Sendin (Your Were The one I Loved), directed by Agâh Hün, Bulgar Sadik (Sadik, The Bulgarian), directed by Lütfi Akad.
- Best directors: Sadan Kamil, Lütfi Akad, Agâh Hün.
- Best screenplays: Haldun Taner, for Kaçak (The Fugitive), Lale Oraloglu for Sevdigim Sendin (You Were The one I Loved).
- Best photography: Turgut Ören, for Sevdigim Sendin (You Were The one I Loved), Kriton Ilyadis, for Bulgar Sadik (Sadik, The Bulgarian), Ilhan Arakon, for Kaçak (The Fugitive), Enver Burçkin, for Ecel Köprüsü (The Bridge of Death).
- Best producers: Nazif Duru, for Kaçak (The Fugitive), Ali Oraloglu, for Sevdigim Sendin (You Were The one I Loved),.
- Best actresses: Sezer Sezin, for Kaçak (The Fugitive), Lale Oraloglu, for Sevdigim Sendin (You Were The one I Loved),.
- Best actors: Sevki Artun, for Bulgar Sadik (Sadik, The Bulgarian),Turan Seyfioglu, for Kaçak (The Fugitive), Cahit Irgat, for Sevdigim Sendin (You Were The one I Loved).

Ekrem Bora, who started his career in Mehdi Özgürsel's Alin Yazisi (Fate), emerges as a promising new actor. Like Ayhan Isik and Belgin Doruk, Bora comes to the screen after a movie star contest sponsored by the film magazine Yildiz (Star).

1956- 50 features are produced. Muharrem Gürses, keen in following the popular taste, mostly in its rural melodramas, goes through a "golden era" directing seven features in a row.

In Berlin, a documentary directed by Sabahattin Eyüpoglu and Mazhar Sevket Ipsiroglu (Hitit Günesi/ The Hitit Sun) wins the Silver Bear Award.

1957- 61 features are produced. Gürses goes on with his fast melodramas and his style echoes also in Memduh Un's Yetim Ömer (Ömer, The Orphan) and Güllü Fatma (Fatma, The Rose). The new directors of the year are Nejat Saydam and Ziya Metin and the new formed companies are Muzaffer Aslan's "As Film" and Özdemir Birsel's "Birsel Film".

A character actor, Osman Alyanak, steals the attention in Lütfi Akad's Ak Altin (White Gold) playing the part of Fettah while new actresses, Fatma Girik and Leyla Sayar, and a further new actor, Orhan Günsiray, starts a promising career.

Atif Yilmaz, a director since then mostly devoted to sentimental and popular melodramas, signs his first personal work with Gelinin Muradi (The Bride's Wish) adapting Kemal Bilbasar's short stories set in a small town.

At the Berlin Film Festival a further Turkish documentary short film, Sabahattin Eyüpoglu and Mazhar Sevket Ipsiroglu's Siyah Kalem (Black Pencil), is the winner of a "mention".

1958- Production goes up to 80 films. New production companies are founded such as "Güven Film" (Yuvakim Filmeridis), "Melek Film"(Sahan Haki), "Kervan Film"(Ümit Utku) and "Pesen Film" (Nevzat Pesen).

New directors like Nuri Ergün, Hulki Saner, Nevzat Pesen, Nisan Hançer and new leading players such as Ahmet Mekin, Çolpan Ilhan and Göksel Arsoy start their career.

During the year the Turkish cinema witnesses a very important film event: Memduh Ün, a director formerly busy with second hand popular melodramas directs Üç Arkadas (Three Friends). After Akad this stands as the second revelation of the Turkish screen and the film, with its intimate and sentimental style, its values based on friendship, love and solidarity is a further milestone enriched by moving performances from a cast composed of Fikret Hakan, Muhterem Nur, Salih Tozan and Semih Sezerli. Based on a screenplay by Aydin Arakon, Metin Erksan, Muammer Çubukçu, Memduh Ün, Ertem Göreç and Atif Yilmaz with additional dialogues by Orhan Kemal Üç Arkadas (Three Friends) thus owes most of its success to a calibrated collaboration between leading professionals.

Another top film of the year is Metin Erksan's Dokuz Dagin Efesi (The Lord of Nine Mountains), about a fiery young paesant turned outlaw.

1959- Production goes down to 76 features. With Aydin Arakon's Fosforlu Cevriye (Cevriye, The Phosphorescent) starts the era of the "mainly women heroes" with Neriman Köksal as its first representative. Meanwhile a new comic actor, Feridun Karakaya, starts a series with Cilali Ibo (Ibo, the Polished One).

Adapted from a popular romantic novel Nevzat Pesen's Samanyolu (The Milky Way) launches leading actor Göksel Arsoy. Coupled with Belgin Doruk, Arsoy brings to the screen a different, blonde and baby-faced, sentimental "lady killer" type. The film's box-office success gives way to the first steady duo (Belgin Doruk- Göksel Arsoy) of the Turkish screen.

Actor Suphi Kaner directs his first film and Yilmaz Güney starts his career acting in Bu Vatanin Çocuklari (This Motherland's Childrens). Poet Attila Ilhan, under the pen-name Ali Kaptanoglu, signs the script of Lütfi Akad's Yalnizlar Rihtimi (Wharf of The Lonely Ones). Akad's film and, mostly, Atilla Ilhan's script, permeated with heavy foreign influences gives way to hard criticisms.

With Bu Vatanin Çocuklari (This Motherland's Childrens) and Karacaoglan'in Kara Sevdasi (Karacaoglan's Hopeless Love) Atif Yilmaz signs the year's most polished productions and Nejat Saydam gives with Kalpaklilar (The Fur Capped Ones), a War of Independence epic, his best picture.

he newly formed "Türk Sinema Sanatçilari Dernegi" (Association of the Turkish Cinema Artists) launches a "Turkish Film Festival" together with the "Gazeteciler Cemiyeti" (Journalists Association). 15 movies are shown but no award is given for best film, best screenplay and best actress. The remaining awards are as follows:

- Best director: Atif Yilmaz Batibeki.
- Best photography : Kriton Ilyadis, for Beraber Ölelim (Let's die Together).
- Best musical score: Yalçin Tura, for Zümrüt (Emerald).
- Best actor: Sadri Alisik, for Zümrüt (Emerald).
- Jury's special award: Metin Erksan's Dokuz Dagin Efesi (The Lord of Nine Mountains).

1960- 78 films are produced. A host of producing companies are founded: Be-Ya Film (Nüsret Ikbal), Saner Film (Hulki Saner), Ugur Film (Memduh Ün), Yerli Film (Atif Yilmaz- Orhan Günsiray), Erler Film (Türker Inanoglu), Metro Film (Aram Gülyüz), Site Film (Ilham Filmer), San Film (Baki Üsküdarli), Kurt Film (Mehmet Aranci).

Aysecik (Little Ayse), staring child actress Zeynep Degirmencioglu, starts the fashion of the "child heroes". With Aysecik (Little Ayse), directed by Memduh Ün, Zeynep Degirmencioglu becomes the first child star of the Turkish screen.

Turgut Ozatay, playing opposite leading star Ayhan Isik in Akad's period piece Yangin Var (Fire), stands easily the confrontation giving a noticeable performance.

New actresses such as Türkân Soray and Gönül Yazar, new directors like Türker Inanoglu, Burhan Bolan, Hüsnü Cantürk, Yavuz Yalinkiliç and Fikret Uçak enters the field.

With the Turkish Armed Forces taking hold of the government on May 27 a new way of thought enters into the Turkish cinema. Known as social realism it starts with Metin Erksan's Gecelerin Ötesi (Over The Nights) and reflects itself in pictures such as Osman F. Seden's Namus Ugruna (For The Honor), Orhan Elmas's Kanli Firar (Bloody Escape), Atif Yilmaz's Dolandiricilar Sahi (King of The Swindlers), Memduh Ün's Kirik Çanaklar (Broken Dishes) and Atesten Gömlek (Shirt of Fire).

Atilla Tokatli's Denize Inen Sokak (A Street Toward The Sea), a very special and personal opus, becomes a box-office flop but is presented at Venice and Karlovy-Vary film festivals and wins a "diploma of honor" in Locarno.

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 1961-1970 Period

1961- The number of production fastly grows and reaches 113 titles. Türker Inanoglu's Hanci (The Inn-keeper) and Ümit Utku's Yaban Gülü (The Wild Rose) are box-office hits. Nejat Saydam's Küçük Hanimefendi (Little Lady) provides actress Belgin Doruk with a further staring vehicle and starts a host of sequels and variations based on "little ladies" or "young gentlemen". Meanwhile, with Kolsuz Bebek (The Armless Doll), Münir Hayri Egeli directs a "first" feature grouping three separate stories.

Actors Muzaffer Tema and Kenan Pars starts directing, followed by Ülkü Erakalin, Süreyya Duru, Natuk Baytan and Halit Refig who all signs their first film. Actor Orhan Günsiray, considered the "Turkish Mike Hammer", brings a new breath to the cops and robbers trend.

Director Ertem Göreç and screenwriter Vedat Türkali come together in Otobüs Yolculari (Buss Travelers), the story of a group of people fighting for their homes, thus signing one of the year's best film. Film critic Halit Refig directs his first film, Yasak Ask (Forbidden Love), after having done a short period as assistant director.

The "First Art Festival", held in Izmir, includes also a "Film Fair Contest" with awards distributed as follows:

- Best film: Denize Inen Sokak (A Street Toward The Sea), directed by Atilla Tokatli.
- Best screenplay: Selçuk Bakkalbasi, for Denize Inen Sokak (A Street Toward The Sea).
- Best photography : Enver Burçkin.
- Best actress: Nurhan Nur.
- Best actor: Ulvi Uraz, for Denize Inen Sokak (A Street Toward The Sea).

No "best director" awards was given.

1962- 131 feature films are produced. "Artist Film" (Recep Ekicigil), "Kazankaya Film" (Hasan Kazankaya) and "Sibel Film" (Müfit Ilkiz) enters into production. Filiz Akin and Tanju Gürsu are the winners of a contest promoted by film magazine Artist. Akin becomes the new and modern "young girl" symbol of the Turkish screen.

And the movies starts to attract the interest of well-known writers: short stories author Tarik Dursun Kakiç directs his first film and novelist Kemal Tahir signs some screenplays. And a new young director starts his career: Mehmet Dinler. With Yilanlarin Öcü (The Revenge of The Serpents), adapted from Fakir Baykurt's novel, Metin Erksan gives a successful example of "film and literature" relations. Erksan's film becomes, with its realistical approach, the event of the year. Once again confronted with the Board of Censors the director has to appeal to the, then, President Cemal Gürsel who, after a private showing held in Ankara, at the President's residence (Çankaya), congratulates all those involved in the shooting.

Producer-Director Nevzat Pesen makes an unexpected break thanks to a screenplay, by Orhan Elmas, adapting John Steinbeck's "Of Mice and Men" under the title Ikimize Bir Dünya (A World for us Two). Thanks to Pesen's apt direction the film came out as one of the most warm and human films of the Turkish cinema. Unfortunately Ikimize Bir Dünya (A World for us Two) remained the first and last major work of Nevzat Pesen, backed by a memorable composition by character actor Kadir Savun.

1963- Production totalizes 128 titles. The newcomers of the year are actress Ajda Pekkan and actor Tamer Yigit, both winner of a contest promoted by film magazine "Ses".

Comedian Öztürk Serengil starts his "golden age" with Adanali Tayfur (Tayfur from Adana), directed by Zafer Davudoglu; former assistant-director Zeki Ökten and journalist Ilhan Engin, who had already signed some screenplays, direct their first features.

Aci Hayat (Bitter Life) and Susuz Yaz (Waterless Summer), the year's two best films, are both signed by Metin Erksan. Aci Hayat (Bitter Life), a box-office hit, succeeds not only in relating a poignant love story set in the big city but also in bringing the Turkish cinema to the attention of a more sophisticated category of filmgoers while Susuz Yaz (Waterless Summer) combines a realistical rendering of rural life and problems with an almost clinical analysis of a sexual passion. Furthermore the film, backed by the acting of newcomer Hülya Koçyigit and character actor Erol Tas, affirms itself as a key work of its director.Thus Erksan, with a sequel of achievements, proves to be a director continually trying to renew himself while Atif Yilmaz goes along his way, a bit uncertain and repeating his past performances. Although considered one of the best film of the year Yarin Bizimdir (Tomorrow is for Us) is still unable to reach the level of Gelinin Muradi (The Bride's Wish).

1963 sees the formation of two professional associations, "Türk Film Prodüktörleri Cemiyeti" (Association of Türkish Film Producers) and "Sine-Is" (Film Workers' Union).

Actress Nilüfer Aydan receives a "diploma of honor" at the Moscow Film Festival for her part in "Sehirdeki Yabanci" (A stranger in town), directed by Halit Refig.

1964- 180 feature films are produced during the year. A further generation of young directors reaches the screen with new thesis, a fresher approach and a preference for social themes. Among them Feyzi Tuna hits the headlines with Aska Susayanlar (Love Thirsty), Tunç Basaran, Kemal Inci and Remzi Jöntürk direct their first films and short-story writer Tarik Dursun Kakinç, author also of several screenplays, tries his hand at a more stylish Kelebekler Çift Uçar (Butterflies Flies in Pair).

New directors Cevat Okçugil, Ertem Egilmez, Orhan Aksoy, Yilmaz Atadeniz are going on while, among a majority of rather fair films, Nevzat Pesen's Ahtapotun Kollari (The Tentacles of The Octopus), Orhan Elmas's Duvarlarin Ötesi (Over The Walls) and Memduh Ün's Agaçlar Ayakta Ölür (Trees Dies Standing) hit the first line.Atif Yilmaz, from the middle generation, passes from one style to the other, trying to find his real personality and signing a sequel of features. Among them Erkek Ali (Ali, The Male) and Kesanli Ali Destani (The Legend of Ali From Kesan) stands as the more achieved.

The year's most important films carries the signatures of Ertem Göreç, Halit Refig and Metin Erksan. Ertem Göreç's Karanlikta Uyananlar (Those Awakening in The Dark), dealing with the workers of a factory, stands as the first "strike film" of the Turkish cinema; Halit Refig's Gurbet Kuslari (Birds of Nostalgia) follows the problems of a family migrating from a rural region to the big town (Istanbul) and Metin Erksan's Suçlular Aramizda (The Guilt ones are among Us) emerges as a "bourgeois melodrama" enriched with striking visual compositions. An esthete in his own way, at times influenced by foreign filmic schools, Erksan remains a controversial, polemic director but, undoubtedly, a real filmic personality.

A new young actor enters the movies, Cüneyt Arkin, and with her parts in Halit Refig's Sehrazat (Shehrazat) and Erkan's Suçlular Aramizda (The Guilt ones are among Us), actress Leyla Sayar emerges as an erotic, a bit mysterious and somewhat fetichistic "vamp" figure.

At the Berlin Film Festival the Turkish cinema wins its first international laurels with Metin Erksan's Susuz Yaz (Waterless Summer) being awarded with a Golden Bear as best film. In Turkey Ali Ihsan Gögüs, Minister of Tourism and Information, awards all those involved in the shooting of the film during a press conference and Hülya Koçyigit's is nominated "actress of the year" by the "Türk Kadinlar Birligi" (Union of Turkish Women).

1965- With production up to 213 films the Turkish cinema enters into an "inflation" period. Still deprived of an adequate technical basis and confronted with an unhealthy high rate of productions the Turkish film industry remains tied, on one part, to a heavy star sistem and on the other to the pressure put by regional distributors.

The "two in a row" system of film shooting (being two features shoot at the same time with the same cast, same crew and identical indoor/ outdoors), started by producer-director Semih Evin, is sublimated by another producer, Hasan Kazankaya, a pioneer in "quickies" shoot in four or six days. This sub-standart policy causes the outcoming of a type of marginal, although high in number, cinema to be known as "confection cinema".

In order to constantly provide such a cinema with thematical sources all and every type of stories and sources are used. Thus Nuri Akinci starts with Hazreti Yusuf'un Hayati (The Life of Prophet Joseph/ Joseph and his Brethren) a line of "religious" films.

Despite the large amount of "quickies" a certain number of worthy films emerges: former film critic Erdogan Tokatli signs a promising first film, Son Kuslar (The Last Birds), Memduh Ün's former assistant, Bilge Olgaç, starts her career as a "woman director" and Haldun Dormen, a leading personality of the contemporary Turkish theatre, enters the film world directing Bozuk Düzen (Broken Order) and Güzel Bir Gün Için (For A Beautiful Day).

Duygu Sagiroglu, known as an art director, gives with Bitmeyen Yol (The Unending Road) a highly realistical first film dealing with internal emigration and Feyzi Tuna directs a convincing film about the problems of the young generation, Yasak Sokaklar (Forbiden Streets). Among the highlights of the year one can include Abdurrahman Palay's Isyancilar (The Rebels), Atif Yilmaz's Murad'in Türküsü (Murad's Folk song) and Halit Refig's Kirik Hayatlar (Broken Lives).

Vedat Türkali, a screen-writer who had given an influential contribution to the contemporary Turkish cinema, and novelist and journalist Cengiz Tuncer direct their first films. Tuncer's Sevmek Seni (To Love You), much too abstract and sophisticated for the normal audience, stands as a "cursed" work unable to have a theatrical release.

The year's most important and discussed films carries the signatures of Metin Erksan and Halit Refig. Erksan's Sevmek Zamani (A Time to Love) is the story of a passion or of an "amour fou" endowed with purely national elements. Still in the reactions of the main characters an alienation is heavily felt. As a result the film gains its dimention through a rich array of visual and aesthetic values who share, unmistikably, the mark of Erksan's personality.

While Halit Refig's period piece, Haremde Dört Kadin (Four Women in A Harem), based on a script by novelist Kemal Tahir, wins the attention of a definite portion of the audience, Erksan's Sevmek Zamani (A Time to Love) ends as a further film unable to reach the moviegoers.

Apart from such "accursed", but in fact "pioneer" works, the box-office hits of the 1964/1965 season ranges between Ertem Egilmez's Sürtük (The Trollop), a further adaptation of "Pygmalion", Hulki Saner's Fistik Gibi Masallah (Thanks God, she's cute) and Ümit Utku's Fabrikanin Gülü (The Rose of The Factory), a mixture of erotica and folk songs.

According to the figures given by the Municipality of Istanbul audience had reached, during the year, 34.393.634 entries. Apparently the Turkish cinema was going through a "golden age" but with an audience still conditioned, if not subjugated, by an imposed tradition.

Young theather actor Kartal Tibet rises to stardom by impersonating, on the screen "Karaoglan", hero of a popular comic stripe while Tunç Okan and Selma Güneri enter the film world. Yilmaz Güney gains popular appeal with his small part in Tunç Basaran's On Korkusuz Adam (Ten Fearless Men), set in Cyprus, and soon confirm his acting qualities with a pathetic composition in Duygu Sagiroglu's Ben Öldükçe Yasarim (I Live in Death).

The "Türk Sinematek Dernegi" (Turkish Cinématheque Association) is founded during the year. The Association wins, right from the start, a large audience mostly composed of students and starts showing selected foreign and local features.

The First Film Festival held in Gaziantep awards, as its "best film", Halit Refig's Kirik Hayatlar (Broken Lives). And Metin Erksan's Suçlular Aramizda (The Guilty ones are among Us) wins in Milano, at the MIFED, an award as "best social film".

1966- The Turkish cinema is soon to break its own record with a total of 240 feature films. Actor Yilmaz Güney directs his first feature film: At, Avrat, Silâh (Horse, Woman and Gun). Yücel Uçanoglu, Nazmi Özer, Ferit Ceylan and Yavuz Figenli are the new directors of the year. Alp Zeki Heper uses non-professionals in his Soluk Gecenin Ask Hikâyeleri (Love Stories of A Pale Night). An abstract love story sustained by lirical photographic work the film is unable to have a professional release, apart from some private showings.

With Ölmeyen Ask (Undying Love) Metin Erksan follows his very personal line of original cinema not aimed at the big audience. Osman Seden, adapting Resat Nuri Güntekin's novel Çalikusu (The Wren), gives a two-part film who remains his best work. Atif Yilmaz keeps on with his eclectism directing Topragin Kani (The Earth's Blood), Pembe Kadin (Pink Woman), Ah Güzel Istanbul (Ah, Beautiful Istanbul) and Ölüm Tarlasi (The Filed of Death). And Lütfi Akad, with Sirat Köprüsü (The Sirat Bridge) gives to the Turkish cinema its first "big screen" (Cinemascope) feature.

In a period rich in theoretical discussions opposing different groups debating on such topics as National Cinema, Social Realism, People's Cinema or Asiatic Type Production Styled Cinema, Lütfi Akad gives a top work. Based on a script by Akad and Güney, Hudutlarin Kanunu (The Law of The Border) confirms Akad's mastery, or Akad's "renaissance" and allows Güney to play an unforgettable part.

Actor Göksel Arsoy changes his type in Altin Çocuk (Golden Boy) and its Bond-type sequels; Cüneyt Arkin brings to the screen actionpacked comic stripe's hero Malkoçoglu and Sadri Alisik devotes himself to popular comedy with Turist Ömer (Ömer, The Tourist). Yilmaz Gündüz, a newcomer in the acting field, becomes a local James Bond in several cheap quickies.

Metin Erksan's Yilanlarin Öcü (The Vengeance of The Serpents) is awarded a "medal of honor".

1967- 209 features are produced. The popularity of the comic stripes and photo-novels, published in newspapers and magazines, reaches the screen and an era of "action" and "adventure" films starts. Thus Killing, Flash Gordon, Fantoma, Mandrake and Superman became the heroes of several cheap productions, mostly aimed at the juvenile audience.

Meanwhile new producing companies are founded: "Ak-Ün Film" (Irfan Ünal), "Er Film" (Berker Inanoglu), "Kadri Film" (Kadri Yurdatap), "Efes Film" (Mualla Özbek).

Producer-Director Osman Seden goes on shooting his starpacked features; actress Türkân Soray, backed by the ruling star system, creates her own myth with such films as Tapilacak Kadin (A Woan to Adore) and Ölümsüz Kadin (The Immortal Women); actor Ayhan Isik, the first "theorician" of the star system, mantains his power over all producers; Yilmaz Güney, the screen's lumpen hero and the antithesis of the good looking young actor, places himself against the conventional archetypes first with works bearing the signature of directors like Atif Yilmaz and Lütfi Akad. In Akad's Kurbanlik Katil (The Victim Killer) and Kizilirmak - Karakoyun (Red River Black Sheep) as well as in Atif Yilmaz's Balatli Arif (Arif from Balat) and Kozanoglu Güney confirms his personal acting style.

Following Güney's choice Türkân Soray also stars in a film directed by Lütfi Akad, Ana (Mother), and after her performances in Otobüs Yolculari (Buss Travelers) and Aci Hayat (Bitter Life), portrays a convincing and realistic type of peasant woman.

The year also saw a Turkish film awarded at an international festival: Atif Yilmaz's Ah Güzel Istanbul (Ah, Beautiful Istanbul) got the "Silver Tree" award at the "Comic and humoristic film festival" held in Bordighera (Italy).

1968- 177 feature films were produced and the number of color features increased. The new directors of the year are Aykut Düz, Çetin Inanç and Melih Gülgen. Among them Çetin Inanç held a first place as a director of low-budget, quickly made action pictures. And Ugur Güçlü enters the film world as a new young actor.

Kara Sevda (Black Love), directed by Seyfi Havaeri, a mixture of folk music and melodramatic events, breaks all box-office records in Anatolia even causing riots.

Top directors such as Atif Yilmaz (Yasemin'in Tatli Aski/ The Sweet Love of Yasemin; Köroglu; Cemile), Memduh Ün (Vuruldum Bu Kiza/ I'm Crazy About that Girl; Ilk ve Son/ The First and The Last), Lütfi Akad (Kader Böyle Istedi/ Fate Wanted It) are somewhat showing signs of tiredness. The only exception is Akad who with Vesikali Yarim (My Prostitute Love) gives an appealing drama. Meanwhile Orhan Elmas signs, with Ezo Gelin (Ezo, The Bride) his best film.

With Kuyu (The Well) Metin Erksan directs a further controversial work full of violence. The story of a tragical passion Kuyu asserts, once more, its director's virulent style and highly charged eroticism.

One of the year's outstanding films is Yilmaz Güney's Seyyit Han, an example of popular cinema enriched with a poetical style and lirical pathos, a sort of legend fresh and steady in its approach.

In Paris the "Türk Film Arsivi" (Turkish Film Archive) organises, with the assistance of the Turkish Ministery of Foreign Affairs and the French Ministery of Culture, a week of Turkish films. The showing includes Metin Erksan's Sevmek Zamani (A Time to Love), Lütfi Akad's Kizilirmak-Karakoyun (Red River-Black Sheep), Duygu Sagiroglu's Bitmeyen Yol (The Unending Road) and Atilla Tokatli's Denize Inen Sokak (A Street Toward The Sea).

1969- Production goes up to 230 features. In a period where "Zorro" type action films are increasing Metin Erksan shows signs of regression with Atesli Çingene (The Hot Gipsy) and Daglar Kizi Reyhan (Reyhan, The Mountains'girl). As a reaction to a host of foreign comic stripes heroes a local one, a Central Asian warrior named "Tarkan" takes the stand.

The year's most interesting film comes from director Halit Refig. Bir Türk'e Gönül Verdim (I Gave my Heart to A Türk), tells the story of a foreign woman and a Turkish man bound with a love full of humanity and a compassion who reaches universal heights is a work of Halit Refig. Based on a true story the film is also enriched by Ahmet Mekin's acting.

1970- Production numbers 226 titles. Selda Alkor emerges as the year's new actress; Yücel Çakmakli and Temel Gürsu direct their first pictures.

Producer Türker Inanoglu starts co-producing with Iran and coproductions leads to the big screen systems. With Ertem Göreç's Pamuk Prenses ve Yedi Cüceler (Snow White and The Seven Dwarfs) starts an era of "fairy tales movies", followed by a row of pictures starting child actors leaded by Ilker Inanoglu (Yumurcak/ The Kid) and Menderes Utku (Afacan/ The Handful Child). Çetin Inanç's action packed "Çeto" hits the box-office and Yilmaz Köksal, the film's leading actor, wins a chance to stardom.

While top ranking directors are mostly busy with melodramas such as Metin Erksan's Eyvah (Alas!), Duygu Sagiroglu's Meçhul Kadin (The Unknown Woman) and Atif Yilmaz's Kara Gözlüm (My Dark Eyed One), Umut (Hope) becomes a turning point for the Turkish cinema. With Yilmaz Güney's simple, real and effective direction Umut (Hope) focuses also on a documentary line and approach.

Temel Gürsu's Dikkat Kan Araniyor (Attention, Blood is Needed) and Bilge Olgaç's Linç (Lynching), adapted from Kerim Korcan's novel, are two of the year's interesting works and Yücel Çakmakli's Birlesen Yollar (Uniting Roads) emerges as a first example of a "national cinema" based on an Islamic way of thoughts.

Two Turkish films were awarded in foreign festivals: Yilmaz Güney'sUmut (Hope) won a Special Jury Award at Grenoble (France) and Ümit Utku's Yara (The Wound) was choosen as Third Best Film at the Tangier Film Festival.

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 1971-1980 Period

1971- Production increases up to 265 features. Arzu Okay, Tarik Akan and Murat Soydan are the new faces of the year while actress Lale Oraloglu and actor Fikret Hakan direct their first films. Metin Erksan passes to musical melodramas, staring top singer Emel Sayin, but manages to emphasis his strong and personal filmic flair and taste despite trite plots. Lütfi Akad also follows the popular trend directing star singer Zeki Müren in Rüya Gibi (Like A Dream) and folk singer and composer Orhan Gencebay in Bir Teselli Ver (Give me Confort). Although being the first attempt at a "genre" later on known as "arabesque", Bir Teselli Ver (Give me Confort) ends as a box-office disappointment.

Süreyya Duru's fairy tale Keloglan becomes a nation-wide success and Yilmaz Güney, with Agit (Elegy), Aci (Pain) and Umutsuzlar (The Hopeless Ones) brings new material to his mature and poetical style. Agit (Elegy), the tragic story of a gang of smugglers, succeeds in entering the Venice Film Festival and Baba (Father), aimed at a popular audience, ends as one of the year's top grossers.

In Milano, at "Children's Film Festival", Ülkü Erakalin's Afacan Küçük Serseri (Afacan The Little Tramp) wins the first prize.

1972- With 299 features produced during the year the Turkish cinema breaks all its past records. Among them 158 are in color.

A new young actor, Serdar Gökhan, starts his career; star actress Türkân Soray directs her first film, Dönüs (The Come-back), showing a professional quality; Metin Erksan gives a fairy-tale, Keloglan Can Kiz (Keloglan and The Girl Can); Yücel Çakmakli, theorician of the "national cinema", concretises his Islamic approach in Çile (Ordeal) and Zehra. Meanwhile Melih Gülgen opens new horizons to the erotic/action cinema with Parçala Behçet (Tear Them to Pieces, Behçet) and actor Behçet Nacar becomes the leading figure of the genre.

Utanç (Shame), directed by Atif Yilmaz, takes into consideration the problem of women pressured by social rules; Lütfi Akad, with Irmak (The River) and Gökçe Çiçek (Gökçe, The Flower), takes a close look at rural traditions and old costums. Both works are first examples of a new approach. And, following his Ince Cumali, Yilmaz Duru signs his best film with Kara Dogan (Dark Dogan).

1974- 189 features were produced during the year with only 6 of them in black and white.

The new directors are Ömer Kavur and Tunç Okan, the year's new young actress Gülsen Bubikoglu and Kemal Sunal starts as a promising comedian.

The Turkish film workers gathers in newly organised unions, thus Nazif Tastepe is put at the head of the "Türk Film Iscileri Sendikasi" (Union of the Turkish Film Workers) and Serif Gören is elected as President of "Film-Sen, Türkiye Film Emekçileri Sendikasi " (Union of Turkey's Film Laborers).

Director Oksal Pekmezoglu starts a new trend with "Bes tavuk bir horoz" (Five chickens, one rooster) adapted from an Italian comedy staring Lando Buzzanca. Such new trend of erotic comedies will become, in the near future, one of the main reasons of the forthcoming crisis.

Tunç Okan, a former action pictures star, directs his first film in Sweden and by relating, with a good mixture of realism and blackhumor, the adventures of a group of Turkish workers trying to illegaly enter into a foreign country signs with Otobüs (The Bus) an exciting film. The year's best feature bears the signature of Serif Gören who, following a script by Yilmaz Güney, gives in Endise (Anxiety) a vivid picture of the struggle between coton workers and their landlord mixing it with a drama centered around a vendetta. Another first film, Ömer Kavur's Yatik Emine (Emine, The Leaning One), relates the story, set in the years of World War I, of a prostitute exiled in a small town.

Lütfi Akad completes with Diyet (Blood Money) his trilogy based on internal migration (Dügün/The Wedding; Gelin/The Bride). Süreyya Duru, a purely commercial director, reaches unexpected heights with Bedrana and Atif Yilmaz shoots the remaining parts of Zavallilar (The Miserables), started by Yilmaz Güney. Although directed by two different cinematographers the films achieves a startling unity of style and intentions.

Meanwhile Yilmaz Güney, following his Umut (Hope), opens with Arkadas (Friend) a new era. In the general panorama of 1974's Turkey the film, dealing with social contradictions and oppositions, open to all discussions and controversies remains, with its mature style, freshness and warmth a milestone in the history of the contemporary Turkish cinema.

Furthermore by being released in theaters previously devoted only to foreign movies Arkadas also break a tradition reaching a different category of moviegoers and ending as a box-office champion.

The Turkish cinema gained also attention in several foreign countries and international film festivals: a "Turkish Film Retrospective", organised in Paris by the French Cinématheque, included Yilmaz Güney's Agit (Elegy), Muhsin Ertugrul's Bir Millet Uyaniyor (A Nation Awakens), Lütfi Akad's Dügün (The Wedding) and Feyzi Tuna's Kizgin Toprak (Hot Land).

Kizgin Toprak (Hot Land) took also part, in Tashkent in the "Asian and African Countries Film Festival" and actress Fatma Girik was awarded with a "special prize" by the Women's Committee for her part in the said film.

Süreyya Duru's Bedrana won the CIDALC award at the Karlovy Vary festival and at the 20 th San Remo Film Festival Erkan Yücel had the Best Actor award for his part in Endise (Anxiety) .

Tunç Okan's Otobüs (The Bus) brings several international awards of the Turkish cinema: at the Taormina Film Festival Okan's opus gets the "Golden Charybe", in Karlovy Vary the Art and Experimental Cinema's International Award as well as the Don Quixote award assigned by the Film Clubs Federation. Otobüs (The Bus) also wins, in Strasbourg, the award of the Human Rights Film Festival and the Santarem Film Festival brings two more awards, the Best Film award and the special award assigned by the film critics.

1975- 225 features are produced all in color thus puting an end to the black and white era.

A new actress is introduced to the Turkish screen, Müjde Ar; star actors Ayhan Isik and Fikret Hakan enters into production; Ertem Egilmez's comedy Hababam Sinifi (The Rascals' Class) and its sequels hits the box-office.

The year's popular trend leans on erotic comedies and Nazmi Özer's Civciv Çikacak Kus Çikacak (Will It be A Chick or A Bird) becomes a top-grosser.

Based on some of Yilmaz Güney's scripts, Temel Gürsu's Izin (Permission) and Bilge Olgaç's Bir Gün Mutlaka (One Day for Sure) ranks as partly successful works. Intended as a realistical cop story Melih Gülgen's Cemil misses its aim through actor Cüneyt Arkin's interference.

The year's best film is Süreyya Duru's Kara Çarsafli Gelin (The Black Veiled Bride).

In Paris the "Association Françaises des Cinemas d'Art et d'Essai" (French Association of Art and Experimental cinemas) organises a Turkish Film Week and Yilmaz Güney's Arkadas (Friend), Atif Yilmaz's Kuma (The Second Wife/ The Concubine), Yilmaz Güney's Umut (Hope), Serif Gören's Endise (Anxiety), Ömer Kavur's Yatik Emine (Emine, The Leaning One) and shorts such as Bebek (The Baby), Yollar Boyunca Türkiye (Turkey Across The Roads), directed by Cengiz Tacer and Sabahattin Eyüboglu's Karagöz'ün Dünyasi (Karagöz's World) are presented in a parisian theater.

In Paris, again, during the "8 th Short Films Festival" organised by the European Union of Cinema and TV workers, Behlül Dal's Günesin Battigi Yer (The Place Where The Sun Sets) wins a special award of honor.

Meanwhile.... the "Türk Filmciler Dernegi" (Association of Turkish Filmmakers) awards 43 film artists having completed their 25 years in the field with a certificate of honor; at the "4 th Yarimca Art Festival", held in Izmit ,Yilmaz Güney's Arkadas (Friend) is awarded Best Film and Süreyya Duru's Bedrana Second Best Film.

Two Turkish features are awarded abroad: Bizim Aile (Our Family), directed by Ergin Orbey, wins the special prize assigned by the "Uzbek Socialist Republic's Workers Confederation" at the "Tashkent Film Festival" and, in Moscow, Ali Özgentürk's documentary short Yasak (Forbiden) gets a Silver Medal.

1977- 124 features are produced. Korhan Yurtsever and Ümit Efekan directs their first film.

The Ministry of Culture's Cinema Office enters into activity. Metin Erksan makes a comeback to the screen with Sensiz Yasayamam (I can't Live Without You) the story of a young woman who hires a killer to murder her. Sensiz Yasayamam (I can't Live Without You) remains, so far, Erksan's last cinematographical work.

Young director Korhan Yurtsever signs with Firat'in Cinleri (The Spirits of Euphrates), adapted from a short story by Osman Sahin, an interesting first film while Süreyya Duru centers is Günesli Bataklik (The Sunny Swamp) around the feud between workers and big holdings and Atif Yilmaz, adapting a novel by Cengiz Aytmatov, gives with Selvi Boylum Al Yazmalim (The Red Scarf) a human dimention to the conflict between love and labor. The film, directed with warmth and sensitivity, leans also on the apt acting of Kadir Inanir, Türkân Soray and Ahmet Mekin.

1978- 126 features are produced during the year. A new actor, Bulut Aras, and a new director, Erden Kiral, enters into the film world.

Action pictures follows the increase of erotic comedies and Cüneyt Arkin rises as the number one star of the action or gang films. Moreover, following the trend of the martial arts epics, by now very popular in the market, Arkin creates his own kind of super-hero myth. In the meantime singers such as Ferdi Tayfur, Ibrahim Tatlises and Orhan Gencebay creates a sort of "actorsinger" supremacy enhancing the so-called "arabesque" style of folk-singing.

Ahmet Taner Kislali, Minister of Culture and Tourism, shows an interest toward the film industry passing a law on "Social/ Security". And Semih Servidal is elected President of the newly formed "Türkiye Film Isçileri Sendikasi" (Turkish Union of Film Workers).

Sultan, from a script Yavuz Turgul, emerges as Kartal Tibet's leading actor turned director, best film. Erden Kiral's Kanal (The Canal), based on the true story of a public officer fighting against landowners, stands out as an honest and frank picture while Yavuz Özkan, directing Maden (The Mine), signs one of the year's best film with his rendering, as a first example of political cinema, of the crude struggle between coal-mine workers and mining companies.

Sürü (The Herd), directed by Zeki Ökten from a script by Yilmaz Güney, emerges as the most important film of the period. Starting in the barren lands of Anatolia and ending in the turmoil of a big city (Ankara) this tragic story of a migration reaches, through an impressive narration, the eights of a truly competent collective work. Sürü (The Herd) thus stands as an example of national cinema reaching, by its human appeal, universal standarts and dimentions.

Muhsin Ertugrul, Baha Gelenbevi and Bedia Muvahhit are awarded with a medal and a certificate of honor, for services rendered of the Turkish cinema, by the "Association of Filmmakers".

A Turkish film Week is held in Bulgaria with the participation of Atif Yilmaz's Selvi Boylum Al Yazmalim (The Red Scarf), Feyzi Tuna's Kizgin Toprak (Hot Land), Süreyya Duru's Kara Çarsafli Gelin (The Dark Veiled Bride) and Zeki Ökten's Kapical Krali (The King of the Porters).

At the "Tashkent Film Festival" Türkan Soray is awarded "best actress" for her part in Selvi Boylum Al Yazmalim (The Red Scarf) and Kara Çarsafli Gelin (The Dark Veiled Bride) gets the special award of the Syndicates'Union at Karlovy Vary.

1979- 195 features are produced. The soft-core cinema reaches its peak with a total of 131 film passing to hard-core with Naki Yurter's Öyle Bir Kadin ki (She's Such A Woman) while soft-core actress Zerrin Egeliler breaks a world record by acting, during the year, in 37 erotic vehicles.

Actor Tuncel Kurtiz directs in Sweden a film dealing with the Turkish workers, Gül Hasan (Hasan the Rose), and Ali Özgentürk signs his first feature, Hazal, the dramatic story of a peasant woman who, in Eastern Anatolia, marries by proxy.

Erden Kiral gives with Bereketli Topraklar Üzerinde (On Fertile Lands) the best adaptation of an Orhan Kemal's novel; Ömer Kavur signs one of the year's best film with Yusuf ile Kenan (Yusuf and Kenan) the poignant and realistic story of the friendship between two childrens lost in a big city: Serif Gören follows the events in the life of a Turkish woman working in Germany (Almanya Aci Vatan/German, Bitter Homeland), Yavuz Özkan deals with a railroad strike (Demiryolu/ Railroad) and Atif Yilmaz gives an example of experimental cinema by strikingly directing Adak (The Vow) based on the true story of a peasant who sacrifices his 2,5 years old son.

Zeki Ökten's Düsman (The Enemy), from a script by Yilmaz Güney, deals with a contemporary social problem and actor Aytaç Arman, playing the part of Ismail the worker who, at first, gets abused until he starts to achieve his own consciousness, gives a top performance. Apart from its style Düsman (The Enemy) emerges also as a model in acting and actor's direction.

Protesting the interference of the Board of Censors baning some films and heavily cuting others the producers entering the 16th Antalya Film Festival draw back their entries so that only short films participates and Tahtaci Fatma (Fatma, the Wood-worker) wins the "Best short film" award.

A first cartoon film festival, the "Nasreddin Hoca Çizgi Filmleri Yarismasi" (Nasreddin Hodja Cartoon Films Contest), is organised by the Ministry of Culture with awards going to:

- First prize: Hoca ve Hirsizlar (The Hodja and the Thieves), directed by Tunç Izberk and Tonguç Yasar's Suçlu Kim (Who's Guilty).
- Second prize: Ates Benice.
- Third prize: Emre Senem.

During the year the Turkish cinema, present at several international festivals, suceeds in becoming a center of attention and in gaining worldwide appeal mainly through Sürü (The Herd).

At the 32nd Locarno Film Festival Sürü (The Herd) is awarded with the "Golden Leopar", as best film, and actress Melike Demirag shares with Rebecca Horn the "Best actress" award. As the producer and scriptwriter of the film Yilmaz Güney obtains the festival's "special award".

Sürü (The Herd) is a winner in Berlin, at the 29th Film Festival, with awards from the "International Protestant film Jury" and the "Catholic Film Organization". Ökten's film gets a further award, as best film, during the "International Film Contest" organised by the Belgian Royal Film Archive.

Meanwhile Süha Arin's Tahtaci Fatma (Fatma, The Woodworker) gets a First Prize at the 3rd Balkan Film Festival and Özcan Arca's Üç Bölümlük Kisa Film (A Short Film in Three Parts) obtains the award given by the Federal German Ministery of Youth, Family and Health in the course of the 25th Oberhausen Short Films Festival.

1980- Feature films production goes down to 68. Two new directors signs their first film: Sinan Çetin (Bir Günün Hikayesi/ The Story of A Day) and Sahin Gök (Kurban Oldugum/ Let me be A Victim).

Although carrying all the amateurism of a "first film" Sinan Çetin's work shows signs of a filmic personality while Kartal Tibet, in adapting Aziz Nesin's Zübük (The Swindler), gives the best of himself in a satirical comedy who not only entertains but also forces the audience to think and ponder once confronted with The Swingler, an uncultured but shrewd and nasty small-town politician.

The year's best film comes from Atif Yilmaz two, in Talihli Amele (The Lucky Workman), tells the pityful story of a poor bricklayer who, heralded and abused as an advertisement star, reaches a wealthy status but ends as a lunatic.The plot gives to Atif Yilmaz the opportunity of taking a deep look at the world of advertising and all its schemes.

The 17th Antalya Film Festival is postponed due to the military "coup" of September 12.

The Cinema Office of the Ministry of Culture organises a "National Cinema Congress" and awards with a certificate a number of cinema people having accomplished their 25 years in the field.

During the year the Turkish cinema gathers further appreciations achievements abroad: Sürü (The Herd) runs for 8 weeks in Zürich and 7 in Basle. At the London Film Festival Ökten's film is awarded "best film" among 93 participating ones; at the Rotterdam Festival an enquiry made among film critics ranks it aong the "three best ones" and the 10th International Festival awards it as "best film".

At the 30th Berlin Film Festival Zeki Ökten's Düsman (The Enemy) gets the jury's special screenplay award as well as the "grand prix" of the International Catholic Film Office.

Ali Özgentürk's Hazal brings five international awards to the Turkish cinema:

- First prize at the Prades Film Festival,
- "Grand Prix" at the San Sebastian Film Festival,
- The "Golden Ducat" at the 20th Manheim International Film Festival plus awards from the "Catholic Jury" and the People's Jury.
- Lahey Film Festival's award.

Another prize-winner is Erden Kiral's Bereketli Topraklar Üzerinde (On Fertile Lands) with:

- The Jury's special award and the award assigned by the French Union of art and experimental cinemas at the International Nantes Film Festival
- Finally Ömer Kavur's Yusuf ile Kenan (Yusuf and Kenan) gets the "Grand Prix" at the International Film Fair.

In Corsica, at the 2nd Film Festival of Mediterranean Cultures Hakkâri'de Bir Mevsim (A Season in Hakkâri) won the "best film" award.

Furthermore, Ali Özgentürk's At (The Horse) was awarded "best film" at the Italian 1983 Lecce International Film Festival and Serif Gören's Derman won the Jury's special award in Valencia.

Back to Top

 1981-1990 Period

1984- The number of films produced during the year rises to 124.

Screen-writer Yavuz Turgul directs his first feature and Orhan Elmas Kayip Kizlar (Lost Girls) ranks as the year's biggest box-office hit.

While the film industry struggles against the video boom two generations of directors signs a sequel of worthy features: in Firar (Escape) Serif Gören gives one of his most audacious works in dealing with the story of a further lonely and oppressed woman and emphasising his heroin's sexual frustrations; in Ölmez Agaci (The Undying Tree) Yusuf Kurçenli reaches a truly human dimention by telling the love story of a Turkish girl and a Greek youngman. Further portraits of women revolting against their conditions are sketched by Yavuz Turgul in Fahriye Abla (Sister Fahriye) and Atif Yilmaz in Bir Yudum Sevgi (A Mouthful or Love). With his personal approach to the "women liberation" theme Atif Yilmaz gives, with Bir Yudum Sevgi (A Mouthful of Love), to the Turkish cinema one of its most important works.

Ali Özgentürk's Bekçi (The Guardian), Erdogan Tokatli's Fidan, Serif Gören's Gizli Duygular (Secret Emotions), Bilge Olgaç's Kasik Düsmani (The Spoon Haters), Ertem Egilmez's Namuslu (The Honest one), Tunç Okan's Cumartesi Cumartesi (Saturday Saturday) and Muammer Özer's works, stands as the year's noteworthy films.

The "Film Yapimcilari Dernegi- FIYAP" (Association of Film Producers) is founded. The Association, headed by producer Türker Inanoglu, prepares and presents to the government a report dealing with video piracy and the peril it represents for the Turkish film industry.

1985- 127 features are produced. The film world gains two new directors, Basar Sabuncu (Çiplak Vatandas/The Naked Citizen) and Ümit Elçi (Kursun Ata Ata Biter/ Bullets Ends When Fired) plus a new producing company, Cengiz Ergun's "Estet Film".

Halit Refig's Alev Alev (The Flame) is the year's biggest box-office hit and singer Küçük Emrah (Little Emrah) pushes further on the "arabesque" type musical melodram.

The number of quality films increases: Atif Yilmaz slides toward a socio-fantastic cinema with Adi Vasfiye (Her Name is Vasfiye), Nesli Çölgeçen, working on a script by Yavuz Turgul, brings a new dimention to comedy with Zügürt Aga (The Broken Landlord) and with it character actor Sener Sen rises to stardom. Another successful example of social comedy is Basar Sabuncu's Çiplak Vatandas (The Naked Citizen) and Serif Gören brings his own interpretation in the re-make of Yilanlarin Öcü (The Vengeance of the Serpents).

Ömer Kavur's Amansiz Yol (Road Without Pity), Muammer Özer's Bir Avuç Cennet (A Handful of Heaven), Atif Yilmaz's Dul Bir Kadin (A Widow), Bilge Olgaç's Gülüsan, Serif Gören's Kan (Blood), Atilla Candemir's Kirlangiç Firtinasi (Sparrows' Tempest), Ömer Kavur's Körebe (Blindfold), Serif Gören's Kurbagalar (The Frogs), Ümit Elçi's Kursun Ata Ata Biter (Bullets Ends When Fired), Feyzi Tuna's Kuyucakli Yusuf and Sinan Çetin's 14 Numara (No. 14) ranks among the year's best achievements.

The year's first foreign award went to Serif Gören's Derman and at the 25th Karlovy Vary Film Festival Talat Bulut won the "best character actor" award assigned by the Film Institute of the University of Prague. Derman was also awarded, as best film, with a "Golden Sword" at the 4th International Damascus Film Festival.

At the 4th New German Cinema Film Festival held in Luxembourg Erden Kiral's Hakkâri'de Bir Mevsim (A Season in Hakkâri) was chosen "best film" by the audience.

For his part in Pehlivan (The Wrestler), Tarik Akan won the Jury's "special mention" at the 35th Berlin International Film Festival.

In the course of the 7th International Festival of Women's Films, held in Paris, Bilge Olgaç's Kasik Düsmani (The Spoon Haters) won the "best film" award as well as the "special award" assigned by the French press. And Halil Ergün was chosen "best actor" by the audience.

At the Ist Tokyo International Film Festival, Ali Özgentürk's At (The Horse) was awarded a prize of 250 thousand US Dollars.

Gülibik, A Turkish-German co-production, won the award assigned by the "Educational Film Library Association" at the New-York Film Festivali and Erden Kiral's Ayna (The Mirror) obtained the "grand prix" of the Figuera da Foz International Film Festival (Portugal).

Süha Arin's short film Kapaliçarsi'da Kirkbin Adim (Forty Thousand Steps at the Grand Bazar), jointly produced by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the Turkish Touring and Automobile Association, won the Jury's Honor Award at the Touristic Films Festival held in Vienna.

In occasion of the "Istanbul International Film Days", organised by the "Istanbul Culture and Art Foundation", the following awards are assigned: "special mention" to Erden Kiral's Ayna (The Mirror), competing for the "Golden Tulipe Award"; a one million Turkish Liras prize, assigned by the "Eczacibasi Foundation", to Atif Yilmaz producer and director of Bir Yudum Sevgi (A Moutful of Love). And a certificate of High Honor went to Zeki Öktem for his outstanding Pehlivan (The Wrestler).

1986- Film production goes up to 185 features. The year's new actresses are Sahika Tekand and Sibel Turnagöl, the new directors Erdogan Kar, Nisan Akman, Ismail Günes and Tevfik Basar. And a new producer, Lokman Kondakçi, enters into the film world with his "Varlik Film" company.

With Aaahh Belinda, staring Müjde Ar, Atif Yilmaz signs the year's box-office hit (40 millions Turkish Liras).

The interest toward the cinema is growing up and a law on "Cinema, Video and music works" is passed and applied which was prepared by the contributions of Mr. Mükerrem Tasçioglu, the pre-minister of Culture and Tourism. Over 20 features bring new insights and approaches to the national cinema. Among them Atif Yilmaz's Aaahh Belinda, Ömer Kavur's Anayurt Oteli (Hotel Motherland), Basar Sabuncu's Asilacak Kadin (A Woman to Hang), Nesli Çölgeçen's Zügürt Aga (The Broken Landlord) and Yavuz Turgul's Muhsin Bey (Mr. Muhsin) ranks as best achievements.Ömer Kavur's Anayurt Oteli (Motherland Hotel), backed by Macit Koper's composition, stands as a noteworthy example of literary adaptation.

With Halkali Köle (The Ringed Slave) from a novel by Bekir Yildiz, Ümit Efekan signs his best work and actress Zuhal Olcay tops with her incissive acting. Sinan Çetin's political Prenses (Princess), gives way to some polemics and the director's subsequent work, Gökyüzü (Sky), follows an escapist and abstract pattern.

Atif Yilmaz's Asiye Nasil Kurtulur (How to Save Asiye) comes out as a brilliant musical and his Degirmen (The Mill) as a competently done period satyre. Further noteworthy films are Halit Refig's Teyzem (My Aunt), Süreyya Duru's Fatma Gül'ün Suçu Ne (Why Fatma Gül is Guilty), Ismail Günes's Gün Dogmadan (Before Sunrise), Basar Sabuncu's Kupa Kizi (The Queen of Heart), Nisan Akman's Beyaz Bisiklet (The White Bycicle), Tevfik Baser's 40 Metrekare Almanya (40 Square Meters of Germany), Yusuf Kurçenli's Merdoglu Ömer Bey, Zeki Ökten's Ses (The Voice), Ali Özgentürk's Su da Yanar (Water also Burns), Serif Gören's Beyoglu'nun Arka Yakasi (The Back streets of Beyoglu), Süreyya Duru's Uzun Bir Gece (A Long Night), Erdogan Tokatli's Suçumuz Insan Olmak (Guilty of Being Humans) and Erdem Kiral's Dilan.

During the year the Turkish cinema participates to several foreign film festivals: Amansiz Yol (Road Without Pity) is showed at the Tashkent Film Festival while Hakkâri'de Bir Mevsim (A Season in Hakkâri), Ayna (The mirror), Bekçi (The guardian), Kasik Düsmani (The Spoon Haters) and Kan (Blood) compete in Venice and in Rimini, at the European Cinema Festival Adi Vasfiye (Her Name is Vasfiye) gains attention through its approach to women's problems.

At the 14th Strasbourg Film Festival, Ali Özgentürk's Bekçi (The Guardian) and Muammer Özer's Bir Avuç Cennet (A Handful of Heaven) are awarded, ex-aequo, "Second Best Film".

Yokus (The Slope), a short directed by Dilek Gökçe, gets the International Grand Jury's award at the 32nd Oberhausen Short Film Festival, and Zeki Ökten's Pehlivan (The Wrestler), competing among 31 films at the 11th International Sport Films Festival wins the award assigned by the International Olympic Games Committee.

Bir Avuç Cennet (A Handful of Heaven) obtains a "mention" in France at the 7th World Country Cinema Festival as well as the "grand prix" of the 7th International Immigrants Films Festival (Sweden), and actress Hülya Koçyigit obtains the "best actress" award, for her part in Kurbagalar (Frogs) at the 8th Nantes Three Continents Festival.

1987- 185 features are produced. The year's new directors are Sahin Kaygun, Zülfi Livaneli, Engin Ayça, Orhan Oguz, Muzaffer Hiçdurmaz and Yavuzer Çetinkaya.

The number of personal and original films grows steadily gaining, at the box-office, much more appeal than the conventional and star-packed vehicles. In other words, the "author's cinema", once started by directions such as Lütfi Akad, Metin Erksan, Atif Yilmaz and Yilmaz Güney, goes on in the works of Erden Kiral and Ömer Kavur gaining a new and contemporary freshness. Such an approach is also sustained by the performances of actresses (instead of stars) such as Zuhal Olcay, Sahika Tekand, Nur Sürer, Serif Sezer, Fatos Sezer and Gülsen Tuncer.

Atif Yilmaz follows his Adi Vasfiye (Her Name is Vasfiye) and Aaahh Belinda with a third social fantasy: Hayallerim, Askim ve Sen (My Fantasies, my Love and You) and the year's achievements are: Sahin Kaygun's Afife Jale Erden Kiral's Av Zamani (The Hunting), Engin Ayça's Bez Bebek (The Rag Doll), Ümit Elçi's Bir Avuç Gökyüzü (A Handful of Sky), Tunç Basaran's Biri ve Digerleri (One and the Others), Muzaffer Hiçdurmaz's Çark (The Wheel), Süreyya Duru's Çil Horoz (The Rufffed Rooster), Sahin Kaygusuz's Dolunay (Full Moon), Nisan Akman's Dünden Sonra Yarindan Önce (After Yesterday and Before Tomorrow), Erdogan Tokatli's 72. Kogus (Ward 72), Ömer Kavur's Gece Yolculugu (Night Trip), Yusuf Kurçenli's Gramofon Avrat (The Gramophone Woman), Bilge Olgaç's Ipekçe (Silky), Basar Sabuncu's Kaçamak (Escape), Atif Yilmaz's Kadinin Adi Yok (The Woman Has No Name), Muammer Özer's Kara Sevdali Bulut (The Love Crazy Cloud), Serif Gören's Katircilar (The Muleteers) and On Kadin (The Women), Korhan Yurtsever's Zincir (The Chain), Zülfü Livanelli's Yer Demir Gök Bakir (Earth of Iron Sky of Copper), Sami Güçlü's Yarin Yarin (Tomorrow Tomorrow), Yavuz Özkan's Yagmur Kaçaklari (The Rain Smugglers), Irfan Tözüm's Rumuz Goncagül (Symbol Rosebud) and Nesli Çölgeçen's Selamsiz Bandosu (The Band of Selamsiz).

"SESAM-Sinema Eseri Meslek Sahipleri Birligi" or "Union of Professional Owners of Cinema Works" is founded and producer Türker Inanoglu nominated President.

At the "International Film Days of Istanbul" Ömer Kavur's Anayurt Oteli (Motherland Hotel) wins the "Eczacibasi Foundation" best film award.

The 2.5 Million Turkish Liras short film award goes to Behlül Dal for his Mavi Yolculuk (Blue Trip).

The Turkish cinema gains further attention abroad: in Nantes, at the 9th Three Continents Festival, director Metin Erksan is honored with a retrospective covering five of his works:Yavuz Özkan's Maden (The Mine) gets its Parisian release in four theaters; Zülfü Livaneli's Yer Demir Gök Bakir (Earth of Iron Sky of Copper) enters the Cannes Film Festival's "Un certain regard" section and Ömer Kavur's Anayurt Oteli as well as Zeki Ökten's Ses (The Voice) competes in Valencia.

Muammer Özer's Bir Avuç Cennet (A Handful of Heaven), already winner of several awards, gets the "best script" and "best film" awards at the 13 th Santarem International Film Festival.

Ömer Kavur's Anayurt Oteli (Motherland Hotel)shares, at the 44 th Venice Film Festival, the FIPRESCI award with Ermanno Olmi's "Lunga vita alla signora" as well as sharing, at the 8 th Valencia Mediterranean Film Festival, with Mazzacura's "La notte Italiana" the "bronze medal" as "Third best film". At the 9th Nantes Three Continents Film Festival Anayurt Oteli (Motherland Hotel) takes the "grand prix" and Macit Koper is awarded "best actor".

The year's last award goes to Zülfi Livaneli's Yer Demir Gök Bakir (Earth of Iron Sky of Copper) winner, at San Sebastian, of the OCIC prize.

1988- Three new women directors sings their first feature: Mahinud Ergun, with Gece Dansi Tutsaklari (Prisoners of A Night Dance), writer Füruzan and painter Gülsün Karamustafa coauthoring Benim Sinemalarim (My Movie Houses).

Atif Yilmaz's Kadinin Adi Yok (The Women Has No Name) breaks all past box-office records and Yilmaz's adaptation of Duygu Asena's novel gathers, in Istanbul, 140 million Turkish Liras in 6 weeks.

A Turkish-Sooviet co-production, based on a work by Cengiz Aykmatov and directer by Hocakulu Narliyev (The day grows longer and becomes a century) is launched.

Among the actors of the young generation Tarik Tarcan gains a particular attention.

The social security problem of artists and workers of the Turkish cinema are taken into consideration with the close interest of State Minister Adnan Kahveci and Foreign Minister Mesut Yilmaz.. State Minister Adnan Kahveci launches an "Off-Shore Media Project" aiming at bringing foreign founds to Turkey.

The "Film Actors' Association" (SODER) is founded and Türkan Soray is nominated President.

The Prime Minister Turgut Özal honors the laying of the foundation of a "rest house" for indigent actors.

Basar Sabuncu's Zengin Mutfagi (Wealthy Kitchen), Zeki Ökten's Düttürü Dünya (Whistling World), Serif Gören's Polizei (The Cop) and Füruzan-Karamustafa's Benim Sinemalarim (The Movie Houses) are the year's noteworthy items.

Tunç Basaran's Biri ve Digerleri (One and the Others) is awarded "best film" by the "Eczacibasi Foundation", in the course of the 7 th Istanbul International Film Days. The said foundation awards Yusuf Kurçenli's Gramofon Avrat (Gramaphone Woman), adapted from a short-story by Sabahattin Ali, a certificate of honor while Yavuz Turgul's Muhsin Bey (Mr. Muhsin) gets the Jury's Award.

And the Turkish cinema goes further on in gaining attention and appreciation in competitions and festivals abroad. Sinan Çetin's 14 Numara (No.14) competes at the 16 th Strasbourg Film Festival; Director of Photography Jurgen Jurges gets the German Camera Award, for his work in Zülfü Livanelli's Yer Demir Gök Bakir (Earth of Iron Sky of Copper) at the Foto Kino Fair held in Kölh.

Orhan Oguz's Her Seye Ragmen (Despite Everything) is nominated "best film" among Europe's best critics choice following an award in Cannes (The Youth Award). Oguz's film is also a winner at the 37 th Mannheim Film Festival obtaining a "grand prix" covering 20.000 German Marks.

Finally Yavuz Tugrul's Muhsin Bey (Mr. Muhsin) gets the Jury's special award at the 36 th San Sebastian Film Festival.

In Ankara the Turkish-American Association present a Showing of Award Winning Turkish Films.

The end of 1988 brings further awards to the Turkish cinema: at the 8 th Amiens International Film Festival, Hülya Koçyigit is nominated "Best Actress" for her part in Engin Ayça's Bez Bebek (The Rag Doll).

In Paris a retrospective of Yilmaz Güney's films is held, including Umut (Hope) Agit (Elegy) Endise (Anxiety), Zavallilar (The Miserables) and Düsman (The Ennemy).

Kaçamak (Escape), directed by Basar Sabuncu, Bez Bebek (The Rag Doll), directed by Engin Ayça, Her Seye Ragmen (Despite Everything), directed by Orhan Oguz, participate to the 32nd London Film Festival.

In Ottawa a Showing of Turkish Films is organised by the Ontario Film Institute, the Toronto Turkish Association and the Turkish Embassy in Ottawa. The showing includes: Zeki Ökten's Pehlivan (The Wrestler), Bilge Olgaç's Ipekçe (Silky), Nisan Akman's Beyaz Bisiklet (The White Bycicle), Atif Yilmaz's Aaahh Belinda, Halit Refig's Ask-i Memnu (Forbidden Love) and Ömer Kavur's Amansiz Yol (Road without Pity).

And the year's last award is given to director Lütfi Ö. Akad. Akad gets the "Grand Award for Culture and Art", awarded by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism for services and contributions to the film art.

The Ministry's Committee chooses, for its "Jury's Special Award", Orhan Oguz, director of Her Seye Ragmen (Despite Everything) for his "contribution to the Turkish cinema and his success on the international film world."

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